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Мне неприятно тебе это говорить, – сказал Стратмор, – но лифт без электричества – это не лифт. – Вздор! – крикнул Хейл.  – Лифт подключен к энергоснабжению главного здания. Я видел схему.





His two beautifully illustrated texts profoundly influenced medical education. Their intricate details about human structures demolished traditional theories about human anatomy and emboldened later researchers to explore circulation and metabolism unburdened by past misconceptions. The illuminating and detailed artwork of Vesalius hastened the subsequent important discoveries in physiology and the beginning of modern science. He recorded changes in daily body temperature with the first air thermometer, crafted in as a temperature-measuring device.

Accuracy was poor because scientists had not yet discovered the effects of differential air pressures on temperature. Santorio studied digestion and changes in metabolism by constructing a wooden frame that supported a chair, bed, and worktable.

Suspended from the ceiling with scales, the frame recorded changes in body weight. For 30 continuous years, Santorio slept, ate, worked, and made love in the weighing contraption to record how much his weight changed as he ate, fasted, or excreted. Often depriving himself of food and drink, Santorio determined that the daily change in body mass approached 1. Although this scientifically trained Italian instrument inventor did not explain the role of nutrition in weight gain or loss, Santorio nevertheless inspired later 18th-century researchers in metabolism by quantifying metabolic effects.

William Harvey — William Harvey discovered that blood circulates continuously in one direction and, as Vesalius had done, overthrew years of medical dogma. Animal vivisection disproved the ancient supposition that blood moved from the right to left side of the heart through pores in the septum—pores that even Da Vinci and Vesalius had erroneously acknowledged. Harvey was aware of the uniqueness of his contributions, and he penned these prescient thoughts in the introduction to his scientific masterpiece: At length, yielding to the requests of my friends, that all might be made participators in my labors, and partly moved by the envy of others, who, receiving my views with uncandid minds and understanding them indifferently, have essayed to traduce me publicly, I have moved to commit these things to the press, in order that all may be enabled to form an opinion both of me and my labours.

This step I take all the more willingly, seeing that Hieronymus Fabricius of Aquapendente, although he has accurately and learnedly delineated almost every one of the several parts of animals in a special work, has left the heart alone untouched.

Finally, if any use or benefit to this department of the republic of letters should accrue from my labours, it will, perhaps, be allowed that I have not lived idly…. So will it, perchance, be found with reference to the heart at this time; or others, at least, starting hence, with the way pointed out to them, advancing under the guidance of a happier genius, may make occasion to proceed more fortunately, and to inquire more accurately.

By combining the new technique of experimentation on living creatures with mathematical logic, Harvey deduced that contrary to conventional wisdom, blood flowed in only one direction—from the heart to the arteries and from the veins back to the heart.

It then traversed to the lungs before completing a circuit and reentering the heart. By loosening the tourniquet, Harvey allowed some blood into the veins. Applying pressure to specific veins forced blood from a peripheral segment where there was little pressure into the previously empty veins. Thus, Harvey proved that the heart pumped blood through a closed, unidirectional circular system, from arteries to veins and back to the heart.

As he put it: It is proved by the structure of the heart that the blood is continuously transferred through the lungs into the aorta as by two clacks of a water bellows to raise water. It is proved by a ligature that there is a passage of blood from the arteries to the veins. It is therefore demonstrated that the continuous movement of the blood in a circle is brought about by the beat of the heart.

Harvey reasoned that if a self-contained constant mass of blood exists, then the large circulation volumes would require a one-way, closed circulatory system. However, he correctly postulated that circulation might distribute heat and nourishment throughout the body. His ideas explaining how air entered and exited the lungs, though equally important, were less well known. Borelli observed that lungs filled with air because chest volume increased as the diaphragm moved downward.

Boyle partially evacuated air from the jar containing a lit candle. The flame soon died. When he removed air from a jar containing a rodent or bird, it became unconscious; recirculating air back into the jar often Portrait of Robert Boyle by Johann Kerseboom, revived the animal.

Compressing the air produced the same results: animals and flames survived longer www. Boyle removed the diaphragm and ribs from a living dog and forced air into its lungs with a bellows. The experiment did not prove that air was essential for life, yet demonstrated that air pressure and volumes alternately contracted and expanded the lungs. He repeated the experiment, this time pricking the lungs so air could escape. Boyle kept the animal alive by forcing air into its lungs, proving that chest movement maintained airflow and disproving the earlier assertion that the lungs effected circulation.

Scientific societies and journals broadcasted these pioneering and insightful discoveries. Boyle belonged to the Royal Society of London www. Both societies established journals to disseminate information to scientists and an increasingly educated lay public fascinated by the quick pace of new discoveries.

In this venerable text, Hales tells how water absorbed air when phosphorus and melted brimstone sulfur burned Stephen Hales Courtesy in a closed glass vessel National Library of Medicine Fig. Hales measured the volume of air either released or absorbed, and he demonstrated that air was a constituent of many common substances. His experiments proved that chemical changes occurred in solids and liquids during calcination oxidation during combustion. During an extended trip in the English Channel in on the gun, ton H.

Salisbury www. Their diet included 1 lb 4 oz of cheese biscuits daily, 2 lb of salt beef twice weekly, 2 oz of dried fish and butter thrice weekly, 8 oz of peas 4 days per week, and 1 gallon of beer daily.

By adding fresh fruit to their diet, Lind fortified their immune systems so that British sailors no James Lind Figure I. Their cases were as similar as I could have them. They all in general had putrid gums, the spots and lassitude, with weakness of their knees…. The consequence was, that the most sudden and visible good effects were perceived from the use of oranges and lemons; one of those who had taken them, being at the end of 6 days fit for duty.

The spots were not indeed at that time quite off his body, nor his gums sound; but without any other medicine than a gargle for his mouth he became quite healthy before we came into Plymouth which was on the 16th of June. The other was the best recovered in his condition; and being now pretty well, was appointed nurse to the rest of the sick….

Next to oranges, I thought the cyder had the best effects. It was indeed not very sound. However, those who had taken it, were in a fairer way of recovery than the others at the end of the fortnight, which was the length of time all these different courses were continued, except the oranges.

The putrification of their gums, but especially their lassitude and weakness, were somewhat abated, and their appetite increased by it.

Easily available, his books were translated into German, French, and Dutch. His treatment regimen defeated scurvy, but 50 years had to pass with many more lives lost before the British Admiralty required fresh citrus fruit on all ships www. Joseph Black — After graduating from the medical school in Edinburgh, Black became a professor of chemistry at Glasgow www.

He observed that carbonate lime lost half its weight after burning. Joseph Priestley — Although Priestley discovered oxygen by heating red oxide of mercury in a closed vessel, he stubbornly clung to the phlogiston theory that had misled other scientists www.

Elated by his discovery, Priestley failed to grasp two facts that later research confirmed: 1 the body requires oxygen and 2 cellular respiration produces the end product carbon dioxide. After a few days, the bees remained alive, but the level of lime water had risen in the bottle and become cloudy. Scheele concluded that fixed air replaced the fire-air to sustain the bees.

At the end of 8 days, the bees died despite ample honey within the container. Scheele blamed their demise on phlogiston, which he felt was hostile to life. His work eventually played an important role in the development of the space sciences, especially modern rocketry and space exploration see Chapter Antoine Laurent Lavoisier — Figure I. Although Scheele adhered to the phlogiston theory, he discovered, in addition to oxygen, chlorine, manganese, silicon, glycerol, Figure I.

Scheele also experimented with silver salts and how light influenced them which became the basis of modern photography. He was the first and only student of pharmacy elected in into the prestigious Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences founded by naturalist Carl Linnaeus [—] in ; www. Henry Cavendish — Cavendish and his contemporaries Black and Priestley began to identify the constituents of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins www. On Factitious Air describes a highly flammable substance, later identified as hydrogen, that was liberated when acids combined with metals.

Lavoisier paved Antoine Laurent Lavoisier the way for studies of energy Courtesy National Library balance by recognizing for the of Medicine first time that the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen involved in metabolism neither appeared suddenly nor disappeared mysteriously. They studied the influence of muscular work on metabolism. These discoveries, fundamental to modern concepts of energy balance, could not protect Lavoisier from the intolerance of his revolutionary countrymen.

The Jacobean tribunal beheaded him in Yet once more, thoughtless resistance to innovative science temporarily delayed the triumph of truth. Sketched by Madame Lavoisier sitting at the left taking notes. Lazzaro Spallanzani — Claude Louis Berthollet — An accomplished Italian physiologist, Spallanzani debunked spontaneous generation as he studied fertilization and contraception in animals www.

Spallanzani swallowed a sponge tied to the end of a string and then regurgitated it. He found that the sponge had absorbed a substance that dissolved bread and various animal tissues, thus indirectly observing how gastric juices function.

His experiments with animals showed that the tissues of the heart, stomach, and liver consume oxygen and liberate carbon dioxide, even in creatures without lungs. A century later, this phenomenon would be called internal respiration.

Berthollet showed that normal tissues did not contain ammonia. He believed that hydrogen united with nitrogen during fermentation to produce ammonia. Nineteenth Century Metabolism and Physiology The untimely death of Lavoisier did not terminate fruitful research in nutrition and medicine. During the next halfcentury, scientists discovered the chemical composition of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins and further clarified what we now term the energy balance equation.

He placed the vegetable substances into one of three categories depending on their proportion of hydrogen to oxygen atoms. One class of compounds he called saccharine, later identified as carbohydrate, was accepted by William Prout — Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac in his classification of the three basic macronutrients.

Moderate exercise such as natural walking raised carbon dioxide production to an eventual plateau. Prout could College of Physicians of not determine the exact amount London of carbon dioxide respired because no instrumentation existed to measure respiration rate, yet he nevertheless observed that carbon dioxide concentration in expired air decreased dramatically during fatiguing exercise www.

The next year, he showed that anterior spinal nerve roots control motor activities and posterior roots control sensory functions. Unlike others who claimed that the tissues derived their nitrogen from the air, Magendie argued that the food they consumed provided the nitrogen. William Beaumont — One of the most fortuitous experiments in medicine began on June 6, , at Fort Mackinac in upstate Michigan www.

As fort surgeon, Beaumont tended the accidental shotgun wound that perforated the abdominal wall and stomach of a young French Canadian, Samata St. The wound healed after 10 tesy National Library of Medicine months but continued to provide new insights concerning digestion.

Beaumont turned St. Martin on his left side, depressing the valve, and then inserted a tube the size of a large quill 5 or 6 inches into the stomach. He began two kinds of experiments on the digestive processes from to Beaumont revolutionized concepts about digestion.

Alternatively, the stomach was portrayed as a mill, a fermenting vat, or a stew pan. Although working away from the centers of medicine, Beaumont used findings culled from the writings of influential European scientists. Even with their information, he still obeyed the scientific method, basing all his inferences on direct experimentation. Beaumont concluded: Pure gastric juice, when taken directly out of the stomach of a healthy adult, unmixed with any other fluid, save a portion of the mucus of the stomach with which it is most commonly, and d Jean Baptise van Helmont — , a Flemish doctor, is credited as first to prescribe an alkaline cure for indigestion.

Its taste, when applied to the tongue, is similar to thin mucilaginous water, slightly acidulated with muriatic acid. It is readily diffusible in water, wine or spirits; slightly effervesces with alkalis; and is an effectual solvent of the materia alimentaria.

Little was known about the physiology of digestion. His Chemical Investigations of Fat described different fatty acids www. In addition, he separated cholesterol from biliary fats, coined the term margarine, and was first to show that lard consisted Michel Eugene Chevreul of two main fats a solid he Courtesy National Library of called stearine and the other a Medicine liquid called elaine. He calculated the effect of calcium, iron, and other nutrient intake particularly nitrogen on energy balance.

His pioneering work among Columbians formed the basis for his recommendations that they receive Jean Baptiste Boussingault iodine to counteract goiter. Courtesy National Library Boussingault also turned his of Medicine attention to plants. He also determined that a plant derived most of its nitrogen from the nitrates in the soil, not from the atmosphere, as previously believed.

This protein would contain substances other than nitrogen available only from plants. In , he gave these specific recommendations: laborers should consume g of protein daily; those doing routine work about 60 g. Justus von Liebig — Embroiled in professional controversies, Liebig nevertheless established a large, modern chemistry laboratory that attracted numerous students www.

He developed unique equipment to analyze inorganic and organic substances. Liebig restudied protein compounds alkaloids discovered by Mulder and concluded that muscular exertion by horses or humans required Justus von Liebig Courmainly proteins, not just car- tesy National Library of bohydrates and fats. Liebig dominated chemistry; his theoretical pronouncements about the relation of dietary protein to muscular activity were usually accepted without critique by other scientists until the s.

Despite his pronouncements, Liebig never carried out a physiologic experiment or performed nitrogen balance studies on animals or humans. Liebig, ever so arrogant, demeaned physiologists, believing them incapable of commenting on his theoretic calculations unless they themselves achieved his level of expertise.

Their simple experiment measured changes in urinary nitrogen during a mountain climb. The protein that broke down could not have supplied all the energy for the hike www. By the turn of the 20th century, an idea that survives today seemed unassailable: athletic prowess requires a large protein intake. Even today, fitness magazines tout protein supplements for peak performance with little except anecdotal confirmation. Atwater — , F. Benedict — , and R. Chittenden — in the United States and M.

Rubner — in Germany. Animals were placed in a sealed, L bell jar surrounded by a water jacket Fig. A potash solution filtered the carbon dioxide gas produced during respiration.

Water rising in a glass receptacle forced oxygen into the bell jar to replace the quantity consumed during energy metabolism. A thermometer recorded temperature, and a manometer measured variations in chamber pressure. For dogs, fowl, and rabbits deprived of food, the RQ was lower than when the same animals consumed meat. Regnault and Reiset reasoned that starving animals subsist on their own tissues.

Foods never were completely destroyed during metabolism because urea and uric acid were recovered in the urine. Regnault established relationships between different body sizes and metabolic rates. These ratios preceded the law of surface area and allometric scaling procedures now applied in kinesiology and the exercise sciences. For the next 35 years, Bernard discovered fundamental properties concerning physiology. He participated in the explosion of scientific knowledge in the midcentury.

Bernard indicated his Figure I. Bernard urged researchers to vigorously observe, hypothesize, and then test their hypothesis. In the last third of the book, Bernard shares his strategies for verifying results. His disciplined approach remains valid, and exercise physiologists and their students would profit from reading this book www. Edward Smith — Figure I. Students observing Bernard white apron, no hat perform a dissection as part of their medical training.

Before this seminal research, scientists assumed that only plants could synthesize sugar, and that sugar within animals must derive from ingested plant matter.

Bernard disproved this notion by documenting the presence of sugar in the hepatic vein of a dog whose diet lacked carbohydrate. Discovery of the role of the pancreatic secretion in the digestion of lipids 2. Induction of diabetes by puncture of the floor of the fourth ventricle 4.

Discovery of the elevation of local skin temperature upon section of the cervical sympathetic nerve 5. Production of sugar by washed excised liver and the isolation of glycogen 6. Demonstration that curare specifically blocks motor nerve endings 7. His contributions to regulatory physiology helped the next generation of scientists understand how metabolism and nutrition affected exercise.

Prisoners climbed for 15 min, after which Edward Smith Courtesy they were allowed a min rest, National Library of Medicine for a total of 4 hr of work three times a week. To overcome resistance from a sail on the prison roof attached to the treadwheel, each man traveled the equivalent of 1.

Curious about this strenuous exercise, Smith conducted studies on himself. He constructed a closed-circuit apparatus facemask with inspiratory and expiratory valves; Fig. Smith estimated that if he climbed and rested for 7.

Smith analyzed the urine of four prisoners over a 3-wk period to show that urea output was related to the nitrogen content of the ingested foods, while carbon dioxide related more closely to exercise intensity. Adolf Eugen Fick — , a physiologist at the University of Zurich, and Johannes Wislicenus — , a professor of chemistry at Zurich, questioned whether oxidation of protein or oxidation of carbohydrates and fats supplied energy for muscular work.

In , they climbed Mt. Faulhorn in the Swiss Alps. Prior to the climb, they eliminated protein from their diet, reasoning that nonprotein nutrients would have to supply them energy. They collected their urine before and immediately after the ascent and the following morning. They calculated the external energy equivalent of the m climb by multiplying body mass by the vertical distance.

This external energy requirement exceeded protein catabolism reflected by nitrogen in the urine. Therefore, they concluded that the energy from protein breakdown hardly contributed to the exercise energy requirement.

Health and Hygiene Influences in the United States By the early s in the United States, ideas about health and hygiene were strongly promoted by European science-oriented physicians and experimental anatomists and physiologists. Outside of the United States, medical journals were being published, but by the number in the United States had increased to There, they would oversee programs of physical training for students and athletes.

His writings provided reliable information for those wishing to place their beliefs about exercise on a scientific footing. Austin Flint. Austin Flint, Jr. Flint served as a professor of physiology and physiological anatomy in the Bellevue Hospital Medical College of New York, and chaired the Department of Physiology and Microbiology from to In , he published a series Austin Flint, Jr.

Eleven years later, Flint published The Principles and Practice of Medicine, a synthesis of his first five textbooks, which consisted of pages of meticulously organized sections with supporting documentation. It was not until the next century in that Ernst P.

Boas — and colleague Ernst F. Goldschmidt cited in the Boas and Goldschmidt text The Heart Rate reported on their human experiments with the first electronic cardiotachometer. Goldschmidt had invented the pulse resonator for recording pulse rate in Flint, one of six generations of physicians spanning the years to , was well trained in the scientific method. These included noted French physician Claude Bernard — ; the celebrated observations of Dr.

Flint was a careful writer. In his textbook, Flint wrote about many topics related to exercise. Experiments of a very interesting character have been made by Dr. Guy and others, with a view to determine the difference in the pulse in different postures.

In the male, there is a difference of about ten beats between standing and sitting, and fifteen beats between standing and the recumbent posture. In the female, the variations with position are not so great. The average given by Dr. Guy is, for the male standing, 81; sitting, 71; lying, 66;-for the female: standing, xxxiii 91; sitting, 84; lying, This is given as the average of a large number of observations.

Influence of age and sex. Influence of exercise, etc. It is a fact generally admitted that muscular exertion increases the frequency of the pulsations of the heart; and the experiments just cited show that the difference in rapidity, which is by some attributed to change in posture some positions, it is fancied, offering fewer obstacles to the current of blood than others , is mainly due to muscular exertion.

Everyone knows, indeed, that the action of the heart is much more rapid after violent exertion, such as running, lifting, etc. Nearly all observers are agreed that there is a considerable increase in the exhalation of carbonic acid during and immediately following muscular exercise.

In insects, Mr. Newport has found that a greater quantity is sometimes exhaled in an hour of violent agitation than in twenty-four hours of repose. In a drone, the exhalation in twenty-four hours was 0.

Lavoisier recognized the great influence of muscular activity upon the respiratory changes. In treating of the consumption of oxygen, we have quoted his observations on the relative quantities of air vitiated in repose and activity. Through his textbooks, Austin Flint, Jr. Hitchcock quoted Flint about the muscular system in his syllabus of Health Lectures, required reading for all students enrolled at Amherst College between and The Amherst College Connection Two physicians, father and son, pioneered the American sports science movement.

Edward Hitchcock, DD, LLD — , a professor of chemistry and natural history at Amherst College, also served as president of the college from — He convinced the college president in to allow his son Edward [ — ; Amherst undergraduate ; Harvard medical degree ] to assume the duties of his anatomy course. Subsequently, Edward Hitchcock, Jr.

This was the second such appointment in physical education to an American college in the United States. Hooker was first appointed to this position at Amherst College in Because of poor health, Hooker resigned in , and Hitchcock was appointed in his place. The original idea of a Department of Physical Education with a professorship had been proposed in by William Agustus Stearns, DD, the fourth president of Amherst College, who considered physical education instruction essential for the health of the students and useful to prepare them physically, spiritually, and intellectually.

Other institutions were slow to adopt this innovative concept; the next department of physical education in America was not created until In , the Barrett Gymnasium at Amherst College was completed and served as the training facility where all students were required to perform systematic exercises for 30 min, 4 days a week. The gymnasium included a laboratory with scientific instruments e. Elementary anatomy and physiology for colleges, academies, and other schools.

The Hitchcocks geared their textbook to college physical education Hitchcock E. Topics covered were listed in numerical order by subject, and considerable attention was devoted to the physiology of species other than humans.

The topics included hygiene and physical education, with brief quotations about the topic, including a citation for the quote. In addition to quoting Austin Flint, Jr. Edward Hitchcock, Jr. Access the most relevant current information in. Gain an understanding of the past,.

Visit the. This Eighth Edition is updated with thelatest research in the field to give you easy to understand, up to date coverage of how nutrition, energy transfer, andexercise training affect human performance. Gain an understanding of how researchers contribute to our knowledge ofexercise physiology through engaging section opening interviews with key figures in the field.

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