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We then start looping over the contours on Line 42 and approximate the number of points on Line 44 and If the approximated contour has four points Line 49 , we assume that we have found the document in the image. And again, this is a fairly safe assumption. The scanner app will assume that 1 the document to be scanned is the main focus of the image and 2 the document is rectangular, and thus will have four distinct edges.

From there, Lines 55 and 56 display the contours of the document we went to scan. As you can see, we have successfully utilized the edge detected image to find the contour outline of the document, illustrated by the green rectangle surrounding my receipt. Line 62 performs the warping transformation. However, we want to perform the scan on the original image, not the resized image, thus we multiply the contour points by the resized ratio. To obtain the black and white feel to the image, we then take the warped image, convert it to grayscale and apply adaptive thresholding on Lines On the left we have the original image we loaded off disk.

And on the right, we have the scanned image! Notice how the perspective of the scanned image has changed — we have a top-down, degree view of the image. And thanks to our adaptive thresholding, we also have a nice, clean black and white feel to the document as well. I printed out page 22 of Practical Python and OpenCV , a book I wrote to give you a guaranteed quick-start guide to learning computer vision:.

You can see the original image on the left and the edge detected image on the right. Now that you have the code to build a mobile document scanner, maybe you want to build an app and submit to the App Store yourself! Not only could you scan the document and generate a PDF, but you would be able to edit the text as well! I strongly believe that if you had the right teacher you could master computer vision and deep learning.

Do you think learning computer vision and deep learning has to be time-consuming, overwhelming, and complicated? Or has to involve complex mathematics and equations? Or requires a degree in computer science? All you need to master computer vision and deep learning is for someone to explain things to you in simple, intuitive terms.

My mission is to change education and how complex Artificial Intelligence topics are taught. If you’re serious about learning computer vision, your next stop should be PyImageSearch University, the most comprehensive computer vision, deep learning, and OpenCV course online today.

Join me in computer vision mastery. Click here to join PyImageSearch University. In this blog post I showed you how to build a mobile document scanner using OpenCV in 5 minutes and under 75 lines of Python code. The second step is to find the contours in the image that represent the document we want to scan.

And the final step is to apply a perspective transform to obtain a top-down, degree view of the image, just as if we scanned the document. Optionally, you can also apply thresholding to obtain a nice, clean black and white feel to the piece of paper.

Just click here and pickup a copy. Enter your email address below to get a. Inside you’ll find my hand-picked tutorials, books, courses, and libraries to help you master CV and DL! All too often I see developers, students, and researchers wasting their time, studying the wrong things, and generally struggling to get started with Computer Vision, Deep Learning, and OpenCV.

I created this website to show you what I believe is the best possible way to get your start. Hello Adrian. Thanks for your awesome posts!

Do you have any suggestions on how this can be done? Thanks in advance! This is for providing blind users with guided instructions on how to properly point their camera at a piece of document with text, in order to run the OCR functions of my software…. Hi Marx — this sounds like a wonderful project, thank you for sharing. I think you are on the right track here. Find the largest contour region in the image.

If the approximated contour region does not have 4 vertices, tell the end user. As for determining how the user should move their camera, the angles between the vertices should be approximately 90 degrees. Hi Adrian. Thanks for your help! Thanks again!

If your goal is to provide real-time feedback to the user, then yes, a live camera feed would be more appropriate. However, this makes the task a bit more challenging due to motion blur. I would instead suggest solving the problem for a single image before you start moving on to real-time video processing. You can eliminate motion blur using a really good camera sensor, and manual control of white balance. This is critical since a lot of sensors come with a controller which by default will try to increase the brightness of the image by capturing multiple frames in succession and adding them together.

However this also means that in some situations it will be too dark for the sensor to see anything. One way to solve this is to put a large amount of powerful infrared LED lights around or behind the sensor, and remove the infrared filter from the sensor so it becomes sensitive to infrared light.

Hai Adrian can you help me to extract text from scanned images these images are very low quality. Be sure to stay tuned! I am wondering what is the title of your followup post after this that you mentioned above. Please let me know if you have it on top of your head. Do you think I can? I recommend using macOS or Linux to run the examples on this blog.

Please note that I do not officially support Windows on this blog. Hello Coung, I made this examples work on windows, you should be able too. I work now on mac OS but if you put some effort you should be able to make it work in work in windows. Since you are not a programer I would suggest you to start there, with some python tutorials on windows. I m even working on windows only and his program also works on the window OS too. Awesome question, thanks for asking!

Substantially harder, but certainly not impossible. From there, you could essentially use the same techniques used in this post. Would you be interested in a blog post on image stitching? It depends on what your end goal is, but I would do stitching first, then perform the perspective transform.

Hi Can, you are correct. You must first convert it to iOS, but the algorithm is the same. All you have to do is port the code. I should have a blog post out on it within the next few weeks. Hi, how can you run a python code on a server? Where can I find a step by step on how to do this? You can see this tutorial on converting an image processing pipeline to an API accessible via a server. The scikit-image adaptive threshold function is more powerful than the OpenCV one.

It includes more than just Gaussian and mean, it includes support for custom filtering along with median Although I only use Gaussian for this example. I also found it substantially easier to use than the OpenCV variant.

In general, I just personally like the scikit-image version more. That would be a really fantastic improvement. And I think most budgeting apps provide an API to interface with the app.

Great Job, good instructions, perfect!!! Do you know, if and how this could be work on Android devices? Hi Sasa, good point. OCR would be a really great extension. Inside I cover recognizing handwritten digits. I played with that some time ago in order to scan books. But I faced to a harder problem: pages of a book are not flat but warped.

And then? There is two transformation to achieve: — first to convert from a warped surface to a flat one ; — secondly to convert from a perspective surface to a rectangular one easy as you did it. How can we do the first conversion? Bilnear formula? Another problem I used to face to is to progressively cancel the shade that appears as the distance between the page surface and the camera increases.

This is a great approach when dealing with small things like a typical receipt. This is where purpose-built document scanners really shine. They can capture a metre-long receipt at full resolution. Hi Mohammad. I use Sublime Text 2 and PyCharm. Definitely check them out! Hi great post!! I really like your web and your tutorials are the best!

Just a doubt… is it better to use a bilateral filter instead of a gaussian one to smooth the image? If a recall right, the bilateral filter preserves better features like edges… Great post, keep doing this great job! Great observation! A bilateral filter could definitely be used in this situation. However, I choose to use Gaussian smoothing, simply because there were less parameters to tune and get correct.

Either way, I think the result would be the same. Hi thanks for the post, really helpful! This exercise requires scikit-image, which someone who just installed OpenCV and Python on a new Raspberry Pi 2 would not have. Installing scikit-image in turn seems to require scipy, which I am trying to install slowly using pip install -U scipy at this very minute. Perhaps a setup step would help.

So far the Pi 2 is doing well. I withdraw the information about installing scikit-image. In fact, it took over an hour. I stumbled with the task of how to correct the document scan of a sheet of paper that has been folded 2 or 4 times? Adrian, thank you for the answer! In other words, your whole perfect algorithm works fine.

Can you give an example of proper usage of the code on lines ? If you have an image named page. I would suggest taking a look at the official OpenCV docs to get you started. Great work!! If Yes, than How! You could certainly use either, but I would suggest going with the Pi 2. Once you have OpenCV installed on your system, you should be able to download and execute the code in this post. Please see this post for a discussion on how the cv2. X with Python 2. There is a search bar at the bottom-right corner of the sidebar on every page on the blog.

As far explaining how to install OpenCV 2. Please see the official scikit-image install instructions. All you need to do is let pip install it for you:. It takes a long time to compile and install scikit-image. What system are you trying to install scikit-image on? Thank you very much for the help you had the same problem, really thank you for sharing your knowledge with us. Hello, Adrian!

I have downloaded your code and tried to launch it on my computer and I failed. I use PyCharm 4. There is a line on main code scan. The error can be resolved by installing scikit-imagee :. However, keep in mind that this tutorial is for OpenCV 2. X, not OpenCV 3. I also found that I had to add parens to the print statement arguments on lines 32, 56, and 73 when running with Python 3.

There is also a warning that the skimage. The warning says the old name is deprecated and will be removed in version 0. Thanks for the update Mike. OpenCV 3 issue. As a blog post that will come out this Monday will show, many users are still use OpenCV 2. I find it very hard trawling the javascript libraries to find something that will mostly do this. Do you know of any libraries that might fit this requirement?. Dear Adrian and other members Your job is highly interesting, I have a related project for 3 weeks.

Are there other links or documents that can help to solve this problem. Thank you. Having scikit-image is a good start, but I would really recommend getting OpenCV installed as well.

I have tutorials detailing how to get OpenCV installed on your system here. Once you have it, you can apply perspective transforms like the ones used in this post. Thank you, I am trying now to install openCV as well. In my second task I am trying to scan two pages of a book not side-by-side. So I will be asked to manage the horizontal lines that will look like curves and the middle-line between these pages that will not be well seen after scanning, but i need to manage it in this job.

Two pages are scanned together and i need to do the transformation to have the plat or flat rectangular form of these pages. Does anyone have something similar built for JS? We are working on a document scanner and would love some help on where to get started.

Computer vision is slowly starting to expand to the browser since computers are becoming faster , but currently there is no full port of OpenCV to JavaScript, making it hard to build applications like these.

If you want to do something similar to this in JavaScript, I would suggest wrapping the document scanner code into an API, like this tutorial does. I would suggest wrapping your Python code using a web framework such as Django or Flask and then calling it like an API. You can find an example of doing this here. Hi, scan. Using the Opencv 2. I have all the modules installed. Am I missing anything here?

Do I need to hit a command or something? Commenting out the following helped. The cv2. I am currently trying to follow it to build an app of my own. I wanted to ask if its possible to generate a crude 3d wireframe model from a photo with probably the users help in correcting the edges.

I would suggest reading up on 3D Reconstruction. For this project, yes, I would suggest using cv2. The problem is that the contours that correspond to big blobs such as the receipt border does not at all end near the top of the list.

I have checked that the contours are indeed sorted in descending order by the value returned by contourArea , and sifted through all contours to verify that the contour enclosing the receipt indeed is present in the list. However, the area corresponding to that contour is uncannily small about 12 pixels.

The issue, I believe, is that findContours here finds the contours of the canny-edges rather than the enclosed objects. However, why this happens to me and none of you is beyond my comprehension. Maybe I have an unknown ascendency to Murphy. Just to clarify, are you using the same Whole Foods receipt as I am in the blog post?

It sounds like there might be an issue segmenting the actual receipt from the image. Can you take a second look at the edge map of the receipt and ensure that it is all one continuous rectangle? EDIT: Try changing cv2. Yes I use the same image as in the post. Well almost. I used gimp to cut out the part containing the receipt. Anyhow, the problem was a discontinuity in the edge map, just as you suspected.

And a solution was to decrease the size of the Gaussian filter 3,3 worked for me. Maybe the reason that I get this problem, but not anybody else, is that I use an original image of significantly lower resolution. Indeed, the cropping in Gimp must have caused some sort of issue. My camera is an iPhone, so the resolutions is very high.

I actually reduced the resolution of teh original image for this example. The less data there is to process, the faster the algorithm will run. And most computer vision functions expect smaller image sizes for more accurate results edge detection and finding contours, for example. Make sure the path you supply to cv2. I demonstrate how to execute the Python script via command line and pass in the image path argument in this post. I run your code on Anaconda, Windows.

It runs perfectly. I want to build an mobile android app on android studio, There are many functionalities including document scanning. As user have to get picture of any object, app may be responsible to get result out of it, But this code need some bindings with android code. How to do this. How to integrate both these together? That said, you have two options:. Wrap the document scanner code as computer vision API , then upload the image from the Android app to the API, process it, and then return the results.

You just need to wrap the code in a look that access a video stream. This blog post should be a good starting point. I got the difficulties in finding the four points of the edge. You can try working adjusting this value to help with the contour approximation.

My paper contour is represented by two separate tuples in the cnts array. One tuple is for the left and bottom edge, and a distance away is the tuple for the top and right edge. Adjusting parameters within the cnts array is too late to find a all encompassing document contour. I tried changing the parameter in findContours as suggested above from cv2.

I intentionally took it at a slight angle to test the transform function. It appears that the assumption of 4 clean points is failing. Check the edged image and see if there are any discontinuities along the outline. Canny to avoid these problems or use a series of dilations to close the gaps in the outline.

Take a look at your edge map and explore the contours. You might need to tune the value of the contour approximation. Thanks for the awesome and detailed explanation.

I am facing the same issue that sunchy11 was facing. Still no luck. Can u please let me know what may be the issue. Great article. I am encountering the issue below when following your instruction. Please advise. Note that I am using openCV 3. Few steps I revised in order to make it worked. Thanks for sharing TD. It details a solution to what is likely causing your problem with cv2. Now, I wanted to scan a receipt, and searched in Internet.

And what did I found? A post you wrote. It is working good with only for the given example but not working in any other image. Did that include installing the scikit-learn module? I understand that astype casts the complete array to uint8 and uint8 is for a 8 bit unsigned integer. But why are we multiplying it with ? I want to detect faint edges on white surfaces. Is there anything i can do about contouring or thresholding? You can control the edge detection process via the two parameters to the cv2.

Canny function. You can read more about these parameters here. Edge detection requires that there be contrast between the background and foreground.

I ran your code and it did not give me the edges as expected. This code is not generic to be used to scan any kind of document. It would be nice if a generic code or approach can be suggested because that is what the professional scanning apps does. In fact, much of computer vision and machine learning is tuning parameters and learning how to tune them properly.

Resize your image and make it smaller. The smaller your image is, the less data there is to process, and thus the faster your program will run. What does the brackets does specifically around screenCnt?

Also, is there an other tutorial where the functions, algorithms and arguments are explained or we need to look at the OpenCV documentation? Hi Adrian, Beautiful work. Is there a way to use houghtransform or some other command to close open contours? Can you use houghtransform over canny? What would that look like? If you have open contours, I would suggest using morphological operations to close the gap. A dilation or a closing operation should work well in that case.

I am having trouble with the image resolution. I want the output of the image resolution to be similar to the image i am inputing. Does that mean the program does not detect 4 edges. I would insert a print statement into your code in the for loop where you loop over the contours to confirm this. However, a better way to solve this problem would be to keep track of the ratio of the width of original to the resized image.

Perform your edge detection and contour approximation on the resized image. Then, multiply your bounding box region by the ratio — this will give you the coordinates in terms of the original image. Your blog is superb and like to do something like your demo. I want to develop app in ios which detects objects from video and want to count total number of objects found in Video.

So i plan to divide video in multiple images and then selecting any image and try to identify objects from image. But i am not getting any help with OpenCv much, but while i am looking at your demo. It can help me. Your project sounds neat! However, I only provide Python code on this blog post — not Objective-C. Can this tutorial still be implemented in an app for android current versions? If yes, how can I get in touch with somebody that does it? As for as an Android developer, I would suggest using Upwork or Freelancer to find a developer suitable to your needs and budget.

Indeed, this blog post was written well before OpenCV 3 was released. You can read more about the changes to cv2. There are many ways to apply OCR to the thresholded image, but to start, you could try Tesseract, the open source solution. Good explanation,can you tell me where i can use this feature mean to say where to use this docment scanner.

Hi, Adrian. I got a question for you. I want to build this kind of paper scanner myself. And then use the qr codes as the corner of the digitized paper instead of using edge detection like yours.

I could use some help. Thanks before, btw. Once you detect the markers, order them as I do in this blog post, and then apply the transformation.

I would suggest starting with an easier marker than QR codes just to understand the general process. Thanks for replying. I know how to detect a certain shape or a square, but I never try to detect 4 squares. Can you send me a link to your blog that explain this or some other blog maybe? Also, how can I order them and then apply the transformation? Is that what line 41 is? From there, read this post on applying a perspective transform. As for detecting squares, the simplest method is to use contour approximation and examine the number of vertices as this blog post does.

I also have an entire blog post dedicated to finding shapes in image. Hi Adrian, Thank you for the very cool article. I am actually trying to port your code to android using opencv 3. Although I am using the very same parameters as you are and also downscale images to rows the edge detector does not seem to detect horizontal edges of the paper even though there is good contrast and the background is not busy.

It is strange, because vertical and angled edges are picked up nicely. I have went even as far as lowering the tresholds to 10 and 20 and while it produces tons of false edges as expected it does not produce more than a handful of dots from the horizontal or near-horizontal edges. I suppose i am missing something trivial. I have even tried the opencv android sample app and its canny does pick up edges nicely.

The [:5] is just an array slice. It simply takes the first 5 elements in the list and discards the rest. You can learn more about array slicing here. Thanks a lot for the very informative post. Could you elaborate a bit on why you resize the image before the edge detection and why exactly to a height of pixels? Because I tried your technique on a couple of images with and without resizing to pixels.

It worked perfectly for the resized images but for the original ones they were bigger the edge and contour detection failed horribly. I would probably just need to tune the parameters a bit differently? In computer vision and image processing we rarely process images larger than pixels along the maximum dimension. While high resolution images are appealing to the human eye they are simply too much detail for image processing algorithms.

This blog post assumes you are using OpenCV 2. The code can be easily adapted to work with OpenCV 3 and Python 3 as well.

Hi, Thanks for the awesome and comprehensive tutorial! I actually want to apply this to some photo of receipts, but unfortunately not all the corner is inside the image there is even a photo where not even one of the corner is on the image.

If yes, how to do it and if not is there any good way to deskew the image? Otherwise, you can try to deskew the image. The rotated bounding box will give you the angle that you can correct for.

Would you mind explaining this? First, we compute the perimeter of the contour. We then take the perimeter and multiply it by a small percentage. The exact value of the percentage may take some fiddling based on your dataset, but typically values between 0. This percentage controls the actual approximation according to the Ramer-Douglas-Peucker algorithm. The larger epsilon is, the less points included in the actual approximation. My goal was to detect the total price mentioned in a receipt.

How can we achieve that goal so that i can easily detect the price? Any input will be much appreciated. It sounds like you are trying to apply Optical Character Recognition OCR which is the process of recognizing text in images. This is a very extensive and challenging field. To start, I would suggest trying to localize where in the image the total price would be likely towards the bottom of the receipt.

Thanks Adrian!! The practical uses for Computer Vision techniques are amazing. I like them. Do you have a post or any suggestion on how to load the python code on android mobile cell phones? May I ask instead of using skiimage adaptive thresholding, is it possible to use the adaptive thresholding in cv2, such as.

If it is possible, it would be great if the parameter in cv2 function could be provided to best suit this mobile scanner application. As I am new to opencv and skiimage. Any suggestions would be appreciated. Thanks in advance. Hi there, thanks for the great piece of work. I am having trouble to reliably find the countour. Would there be a way to have cv to default to image boundaries or may be bounding rectangle if the countours could not be approximated?

Thanks again so much and happy new year. If you are having trouble finding the contour of the document then I would suggest playing with the edge detection parameters. You could just check if value in screenCnt is None, and in case it is, default to the whole image. Also I found that blurring the edged image before approximation makes approximation better. Thanks for the article — it was really helpful. I went further by adding OCR, and optimizing the code for that matter.

Hi Adrian, Thanks for this. This was a good beginning to learn OpenCV. I struggled to install opencv on Mac but then was successful in doing so on a linux box. Now I find that I can use scipy, skimage and I also tried with sklearn, only outside the virtual environment, inside the v.

Maybe you have some tips since I am completely lost. Hey Sergi — it sounds like you have installed SciPy, scikit-image, etc. Thank you for the wonderfull work. I followed your raspberry pi installation guide and managed to install CV 3 on my rpi3 raspbian jessie with pixel. I went here and downloaded your code. But it keeps failing.

If you are getting a memory issue, try using the –no-cache-dir when installing via pip :. Hello Adrian, can you tell me how to get the transform module? Also, how to set up the module so that I can use it for other programs as well? Hello Adrian, i just came across this post its very helpful please do you have anything on OCR? Can you suggest some tutorial or any source to make an android or IOS app for mobile scanner and integrate with the mobile camera and convert the clicked image into PDF or jpeg.

Many thanks for uploading your tutorials! I have a problem with installing the pyimagesearch module though. I am using the jupyter notebook, usually with installing packages I use the following code:. However, this time this gives te following error: Could not find a version that satisfies the requirement pyimagesearch from versions: No matching distribution found for pyimagesearch.

You need to read up on command line arguments. I would suggest you use cv2. This book will help you learn the fundamentals of OpenCV and image processing. Hey, great tutorial. Very informative and easy to understand. However I am unable to figure out how to use it in android studio to build the app. Please Help. It does not cover Java. One person found this helpful. Very inspirational book and the kick in the butt I needed to start off new year in thanks, Kat!

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But I faced to a harder problem: pages of a book are not flat but warped.